What Are the Doshas of Ayurveda? 


Dosha refers to three bio-energetic forces in Ayurveda that govern body and mind functions: vata, pitta, and kapha.


Imagine if your body had its own unique energy signature that determined your physical, mental, and emotional characteristics. This is the basis of Ayurvedic medicine, where the three doshas—Vata, Pitta, and Kapha—are believed to circulate in every individual and play a crucial role in maintaining health.

Similarly, ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers believed that the human body was governed by four bodily fluids or humors—blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm—that determined a person’s temperament and susceptibility to certain illnesses.

Despite the differences in terminology and culture, both systems share a common goal: achieving balance and harmony within the body. Whether it’s through balancing the doshas in Ayurveda or the humors in Humoralism, the key to good health lies in finding equilibrium.

Doshas and the Five Elements 

Doshas of Ayurveda
Source: Wikimedia Commons

As per ancient doctrines, our body functions as a symphony of five elements, each playing its own unique part in determining your psychological and physiological tendencies. According to Ayurveda, these elements—Earth, Water, Fire, Air, and Space—combine to create the three doshas that influence everything from basic bodily functions to your very thoughts.

But the connection between these elements and our health goes even deeper. In yoga, the five elements are associated with the five fingers of the hand, and different mudras (hand gestures) are used to balance these elements in the body.

And the origins of these elements are equally fascinating. All five elements, including earth and space, can be traced back to ether, a substance that shares qualities with consciousness itself.

Related:Practical Ways to Reduce Stress and Boost Your Well-Being

The Manifestation of the Five Elements within the Three Doshas

1. Akasha  (Ether)

ether as an element. Doshas
The medieval concept of the cosmos. The innermost spheres are the terrestrial spheres, while the outer is made of aether and contain the celestial bodies. Source: Edward Grant via Wikimedia Commons

In Ayurveda, akasha is the first of all elements, the subtle and omnipresent ether that flows through the cosmos. It’s the force that breathes life into creation, propelling us forward with its creative energy and consciousness. Our bodies are a reflection of the Akasha, with all the openings, passages, and movements corresponding to its expansive essence. The space in our ears allows us to hear, the space in our throats allows us to swallow, and the space in our eyes allows us to see. Even the space between our joints enables us to move, run, walk, and dance. And let us not forget the space within our hearts, which keeps our lifeblood flowing. As the original form of existence, the Akasha is more than just an absence of matter. It’s a force to be reckoned with, guiding everything and everyone towards its all-encompassing embrace.


2. Vayu (Air)

Doshas merged with air.
Alchemical symbol for air. Source: Wpclipart

The Vayu, or Air Element, is an integral aspect of Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of holistic medicine. It encompasses not only the physical gases we breathe, such as nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide but also the vital dimension of movement that permeates our entire being. Of the five Ayurvedic elements, Vayu is the most accessible and offers a path towards mastery through practices such as pranayama, which involves conscious breath work to harness the power of prana, the life force energy that flows through all living things. Without the constant flow of air and the resulting breath, movement, and circulation, life as we know it would cease to exist. The impact of Vayu is immediate and potent, as even a few minutes of deprivation can lead to dire consequences. Vayu is characterized by its qualities of motion, lightness, and speed, as well as its potential for unpredictability and flightiness.

Related: Put Your Best Foot Forward: How Walking Every Day Can Improve Your Health

3. Tejas/ Agni (Fire)

Doshas: Fire as an element
A cauldron above the fire. Source: Wikimedia Commons

The Agni, or Fire Element, is a vital component of Ayurvedic philosophy and essential to our overall health and well-being. At its core, Agni represents the intelligent force that guides every cell, tissue, and system within the physical body. It is a symbol of intelligence, clarity, presence, and illumination that resides within each of us. This element lives within the physical body, providing us with the energy and drive to keep moving forward. It regulates our endocrine system, oversees our digestive and metabolic processes, and maintains our regulatory functions. But Agni is not limited to the physical realm alone, as it also manifests in our minds. Within the subtler aspects of our being, Agni is known as Tejas and provides the clarity, illumination, and truth that guide our mental, emotional, and spiritual activity. It is responsible for our crucial mental faculties of discernment and discipline, and its transformative power allows for burning, clearing, cleansing, and illuminating. However, it is also a force that can lead to destruction, rage, impatience, and recklessness if left unchecked.

Related:From Cosmic Beginning to Finding the Purpose of Our Existence

4. Apas (Water)

Doshas: Water as an element
Source: Reino Baptista via Wikimedia Commons

In Ayurveda, the water element, known as “Apas” in Sanskrit, is considered the fourth great element and is derived from the elements of ether, space, air, and fire. This is because water contains all aspects of these three elements, making it an incredibly versatile and dynamic force in the body. Water is a fluidic matter that provides essential nourishment to the body, protecting it against dissolution, promoting motion, and soothing pain and inflammation. As humans, we are composed of approximately 60% water, making it a vital element for our overall health and well-being. Water is a healing force that both protects and binds the body together, and its qualities are characterized as cooling, hydrating, heavy, smooth, stagnant, or inflow. By providing an antidote to symptoms that have opposing qualities, such as emotional instability, dehydration, sensitivity, low self-esteem, or a hardened heart, water serves as a powerful healing force within the body.

 5. Prithvi (Earth)

Earth as an element; Doshas how to find  out?
Source: Sameer via pixabay

In the ancient Ayurvedic wisdom, the earth element, also known as “Prithvi”, stands as the ultimate and most tangible manifestation of the five great elements. This element is formed from the essence of all five elements, and it signifies the culmination of their evolution into a solid and stable form. Earth is characterized by its qualities of density, hardness, dryness, and tangibility. When we feel ungrounded and unanchored, we may experience symptoms such as flightiness, chaos, or feeling stuck in our heads. By attuning to the stabilizing influence of the Earth element, we can regain our sense of rootedness and balance, which can help us navigate the ups and downs of life with greater ease and resilience.

Related: Say Goodbye to Constipation with Ayurvedic Medicine

 Dosha in Ayurveda


How do doshas work?
Artus Wolffort depicts four elements.

Vata Dosha: The Vata Dosha is composed of air and ether elements. Its fundamental principle is movement and flow. Vata represents the impulsive and spontaneous ease that is light-footed and goes with the wind. This dosha primarily resides in the colon, large intestines, pelvis, lower back, and thighs. Vata aids in digestion by eliminating toxins and waste from the body. It also plays a crucial role in the flow of movement, metabolism, and cellular behavior. Moreover, vata serves as the fuel for agni (the fire element), intellect, passions, and intuition, as it is a vital part of the nervous system. The movements of the elements and their interrelation are also crucial in determining the other two doshas, Pitta and Kapha.

Pitta Dosha: Pitta is the result of the combination of fire and water. It possesses qualities such as heat, acidity, or tartness, and a tendency to spread rapidly (like a wildfire). Pitta plays a crucial role in the body’s metabolism, endocrine system, speech fluency, motivation, intellect, and efficient mental and physical digestion. However, when it becomes imbalanced, it can lead to rage, irritability, impatience, stress, frustration, skin irritations, and digestive issues

Kapha Dosha: Kapha is like the steady, grounded rock that forms the foundation of your being, while also providing the slippery oil that keeps your body’s parts moving smoothly. It’s the harmonious blend of the Earth and Water elements, bringing qualities of coolness, stability, weight, and oiliness to your physical and emotional makeup.

In balance, Kapha brings you the gifts of strength, stamina, motivation, a robust immune system, and unshakable mental stability. You feel like a mountain, immovable and serene in the face of life’s challenges.

When Kapha is imbalanced, it may manifest as a landslide of symptoms, including lethargy, weight gain, stubbornness, and depression. The affected individual may experience a sensation of carrying a heavy burden, struggling to progress, or being trapped in stagnation.

 Related: The Truth About Frozen Foods and Your Health

How to Find My Dosha Type?

Take this simple and quick quiz to get an idea of your dosha type.



The information provided in this article is for educational purposes only and should not be construed as medical advice. It is not intended to replace the advice of a healthcare professional. Before making any significant changes to your diet, lifestyle, or healthcare regimen, please consult with your healthcare provider.


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