Existential Therapy: Types, Benefits, Examples & Limitations


Existential therapy offers a unique approach that delves into the depths of human existence. It explores fundamental questions about life, meaning, freedom, and personal responsibility.

Existential therapy is rooted in existentialism, a philosophical movement that emerged in the 19th and 20th centuries. Central to existentialism are key principles such as individual freedom, personal responsibility, and the quest for meaning and purpose. Existentialists emphasize that individuals are free to shape their own lives and are responsible for the choices they make. This article will provide a comprehensive understanding of existential therapy, including its types, benefits, examples, and limitations.

Definition of Existential Therapy

Existential Therapy
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Existential therapy is a form of psychotherapy that focuses on addressing existential concerns and helping individuals develop a deeper understanding of themselves. It aims to increase self-awareness, explore personal values and beliefs, and foster a sense of authenticity in one’s life. Existential therapists guide clients in examining their existence, choices, and the meaning they ascribe to their experiences.

Existential therapy places a strong emphasis on personal responsibility and freedom. It encourages individuals to take ownership of their lives and make choices that align with their authentic selves. Through self-reflection and exploration, clients can gain insights into their struggles, fears, and aspirations.

Types of Existential Therapy

Existential therapy encompasses various approaches, each with its own nuances. Here are three notable types of existential therapy:

  1. Logotherapy: Developed by Viktor Frankl, logotherapy focuses on helping individuals find meaning and purpose in life. It emphasizes the importance of identifying values and utilizing them to navigate challenges and find fulfillment.
  2. Daseinsanalysis: Inspired by Martin Heidegger’s philosophy, daseinsanalysis explores the individual’s unique existence and how they relate to the world. It emphasizes understanding one’s “being-in-the-world” and how it influences their experiences and choices.
  3. Existential-Humanistic Therapy: This approach combines existential therapy with humanistic principles. It emphasizes personal growth, self-acceptance, and the importance of living an authentic life aligned with one’s values.

The Therapeutic Process

In existential therapy, the therapeutic process involves several key steps. Initially, the therapist conducts an assessment to understand the client’s concerns, goals, and existential struggles. Together, they set therapeutic goals that focus on personal growth and self-awareness.

Building a strong therapeutic relationship is essential in existential therapy. The therapist provides a safe and non-judgmental space for clients to explore their inner experiences and existential concerns. Through active listening and empathetic understanding, the therapist establishes trust and facilitates meaningful dialogue.

Existential therapy employs a variety of techniques and interventions. These may include reflective questioning, exploring personal values, challenging beliefs, and using creative methods to encourage self-expression. The therapist encourages clients to delve deep into their experiences, emotions, and thoughts, fostering self-reflection and exploration.

Read About: Is Hypnosis an Existential Technique?

Benefits of Existential Therapy

Existential therapy offers numerous benefits for individuals seeking personal growth and self-discovery. Some of the key benefits include:

  • Promoting personal growth and self-acceptance: Existential therapy encourages individuals to embrace their authentic selves, leading to increased self-acceptance and personal growth.
  • Developing a sense of purpose and meaning: By exploring existential concerns, individuals can discover a sense of purpose and meaning in their lives.
  • Enhancing self-awareness and authenticity: Existential therapy helps individuals gain a deeper understanding of themselves, their values, and their choices, leading to increased self-awareness and authenticity.
  • Improving relationships and communication: Through existential therapy, individuals can develop healthier relationships by understanding their own needs and values and effectively expressing themselves to others.

Examples of Existential Therapy in Practice

To illustrate the practical application of existential therapy, let’s consider a couple of examples:

Case Study 1: Overcoming Fear of Mortality

In this case, the client is grappling with anxiety and existential distress related to their fear of mortality. Existential therapy offers a framework to address these concerns by examining the fundamental questions of existence and helping the client find meaning in their life.

During therapy sessions, the existential therapist creates a safe and supportive environment for the client to explore their fears openly. The therapist encourages the client to examine their beliefs, values, and assumptions about life and death. Through open and honest conversations, the client begins to gain insight into their fear of mortality and its impact on their daily life.

Existential therapy emphasizes the importance of taking personal responsibility for one’s choices and actions. The therapist may guide the client to reflect on how their fear of mortality may be limiting their experiences and preventing them from fully engaging in life. The client may also explore their relationship with death and examine the existential questions surrounding the meaning and purpose of life.

Throughout the therapeutic process, the therapist helps the client develop strategies to cope with their fear of mortality. This may involve exploring different philosophical perspectives, such as the concept of the impermanence of life, finding meaning in the present moment, or embracing the uncertainty of existence. The client learns to confront their fears and gradually find peace and acceptance, leading to a more fulfilling and meaningful life.

Case Study 2: Finding Meaning after a Loss

In this case, the client has recently experienced a significant loss and is struggling with feelings of emptiness and despair. Existential therapy provides a space for the client to explore their grief, make sense of their loss, and find ways to rebuild their life with a renewed sense of purpose.

The existential therapist acknowledges the client’s pain and validates their emotions, creating a supportive atmosphere for the client to express their grief. Through empathic listening and reflection, the therapist helps the client explore their experience of loss, the meaning it holds for them, and the existential questions it raises.

Existential therapy recognizes that significant life events, such as loss, can challenge an individual’s sense of meaning and purpose. The therapist assists the client in examining their values, beliefs, and identity in light of the loss. Together, they explore how the loss has impacted the client’s understanding of themselves, others, and the world around them.

The therapeutic process may involve discussions on the concept of death, the nature of human existence, and the search for meaning in the face of adversity. The client is encouraged to reflect on their personal strengths and resources and identify activities or pursuits that hold significance for them. The therapist supports the client in exploring new possibilities, setting meaningful goals, and finding ways to integrate their loss into their evolving sense of self.

As therapy progresses, the client gradually moves from a place of despair and emptiness to a state of rebuilding and rediscovery. They learn to honor their loss while embracing life with a renewed sense of purpose. Existential therapy helps the client find meaning in the midst of their grief and supports them in creating a meaningful and fulfilling life moving forward.

Limitations of Existential Therapy

While existential therapy offers valuable insights, it does have some limitations to consider:

  • Lack of empirical evidence: Existential therapy is rooted in philosophical concepts and has limited empirical research to support its efficacy compared to other therapeutic approaches.
  • May not be suitable for severe mental health conditions: Existential therapy may not be the primary approach for severe mental health conditions that require more specialized treatment.
  • Requires a willingness to explore existential concerns: Clients who are resistant to examining existential questions or uncomfortable with self-reflection may find existential therapy challenging.


Existential therapy provides a unique framework for exploring the depths of human existence and addressing existential concerns. By embracing personal responsibility, freedom, and self-awareness, individuals can cultivate a deeper understanding of themselves, find meaning and purpose, and navigate life’s challenges with authenticity. Whether overcoming fears, discovering meaning, or improving relationships, existential therapy offers a transformative journey of self-discovery and personal growth.

Questions about Existential Therapy

  1. Is existential therapy suitable for everyone? Existential therapy can be beneficial for individuals seeking self-discovery, personal growth, and a deeper understanding of themselves. However, it may not be the best fit for everyone, especially those who are not comfortable exploring existential concerns or require more intensive mental health support.
  2. How long does existential therapy typically last? The duration of existential therapy varies depending on the individual’s needs and goals. It can range from a few sessions to several months or more, depending on the complexity of the issues being addressed.
  3. Can existential therapy help with specific mental health conditions? Existential therapy is not focused on treating specific mental health conditions but rather on addressing existential concerns and promoting personal growth. It can be used in conjunction with other therapeutic approaches to support individuals dealing with a wide range of mental health issues.
  4. Can I benefit from existential therapy even if I don’t have existential concerns? Yes, even if you don’t have specific existential concerns, existential therapy can still be beneficial. It provides a framework for self-reflection, personal growth, and the exploration of one’s values and beliefs, which can enhance overall well-being and help individuals live more authentic lives.
  5. How do I find an existential therapist? To find an existential therapist, you can start by researching therapists in your area who specialize in existential therapy. You can also consult with mental health professionals or ask for referrals from friends, family, or your primary care physician. It’s important to find a therapist you feel comfortable with and who has experience in working with existential concerns.


Alizadeh, S., Taklavi, S., & Alilou, M. M. (2021). The Effectiveness of Existential Therapy on Death Anxiety and Meaning of Life in Recovered Patients of Covid-19. Islamic Azad University, Ardabil Branch; University of Tabriz.

Van Brunt, B. (2015). Searching for MEANING. In Harm to Others (pp. 187-198). DOI: 10.1002/9781119221678.ch12.

Disclaimer: Please note that this article is for informational purposes only and should not replace professional medical or therapeutic advice.


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